This synthesis report is based on two main sources of information:
- review of current external literature; and
- IFAD sources (a review of IOE evaluations, Programme Management Department (PMD) documentation on targeting, and IFAD policy and strategy documents.
Section II draws examples from the development literature of analyses of differences among rural populations, and potential pathways for the development of various rural groups. It then relates these to a consideration of the policies that might facilitate the progress of groups along these paths.
Section III focuses on IFAD’s experience in targeting.
The final section summarizes the key issues and IFAD’s options for strengthening its impact on poverty and hunger through approaches that address rural diversity and maximize the pro-poor benefits of rural and smallholder agricultural development.
The annex contains a more in-depth analysis of the potential of different types of rural and agricultural development policies to benefit diverse categories of rural people, and IFAD’s potential role in relation to those policies.